(Intro by Steve Hopkins)
In an interview last month with Willy Leparulo, President of National Collegiate Table Tennis Association, he referenced a research paper that he created that followed the development of table tennis on college campuses. You can view the full interview here.
Willy Leparulo has provided the document to Butterfly for us to post. We have providing an annotated version of the document in two parts. The first part was published a week ago and can be found HERE. Part two is shown below:
History and Development of College Table Tennis within the Campus Recreation Culture (by Willy Leparulo)
The National Collegiate Table Tennis Association herein known as NCTTA started to accommodate the growth in the league and to reach the goal of LNITT leaders for expansion. Schools from the south, west and even Canada were very eager to join the organization. Under the leadership of Karen Chang (now Karen Chang-Wu), an undergraduate senior at Wellesley College, the NCTTA was able to increase its membership and number of competitions. Chang, who currently serves as the organization’s pro bono lawyer, said in 1999 “When I first became an officer for NCTTA my sophomore year, I recall laughing at then-president Robert Lendvai’s vision that the ‘N’ in ‘LNITT’ would one day stand for ‘National’ instead of ‘Northeast’. Today that vision is a reality.” (Lee, 2000)
College Table Tennis as we know it has undergone massive change over the past decade and a half: from its name, to the environment, to its organizational makeup. In 1999 it became a government recognized non for profit 501c-3 organization. In the last part of the 1990’s, the National Collegiate Table Tennis was born, adding new schools and new volunteers into the paradigm and ultimately adding more passion for the ultimate goal, College Table Tennis. NCTTA created its own bylaws, rules, board of directors and purposes. The purposes for which the National Collegiate Table Tennis Association was formed are documented in the NCTTA Bylaws: (NCTTA, 2015)
1) To develop a strong collegiate program by developing a community grassroots program, scholarship programs, competitive play and true integrity with each college and community
2) To promote the growth and development of instructional, recreational and competitive table tennis programs in institutions of higher learning in accordance with the constitution, standards and regulations of USA Table Tennis (USATT) and NCTTA
3) To create interest in and provide educational aids and opportunities for improving college table tennis programs
4) To provide leadership experiences for students and faculty in conducting tournaments and programs in collegiate table tennis
5) To develop competitive experiences for college table tennis players to participate in progressively more challenging and demanding competition commensurate with their ability by:
a) Establishing and conducting, in coordination with USA Table Tennis, local, state, regional and national level college table tennis championships
b) Preparing college table tennis players to better participate and represent their country, their sport and themselves in international competition such as Olympics,
Pan American Games and World Championships NCTTA’s goals would change throughout the years, but one constant remained:
They believed to be the national governing body for College Table Tennis schools and clubs and wanted to maintain and improve the league structure and championships. Nelson Chin, one of the founders, was quoted in Vivian Lee’s 2000 article in USATT magazine stating that his motivation “was to see table tennis have professional respect at the college level, and at the same time promote friendship matches and activities among the campuses both regionally and internationally.”
This type of motivation clearly carried forward in the early years of NCTTA when all unpaid volunteers were college students. Today’s NCTTA staff continues to be entirely made up of unpaid volunteers whose passion for the sport drives them to promote it in aggressive and creative ways and not all anymore are just college students. They used resources like the internet (pre social media age) and other intangibles such as the popularity of Table Tennis to help promote the organization’s goals. The internet created an accessible network between the organization and its members and helped NCTTA become a non-profit association, with no physical home office location, and one that is completely managed by volunteers. Organizations like NCTTA in 1998, created and managed in the above-described fashion, were rare at the time and continue to be so in 2015. This unusual but successful model continues to this day.
This paper will discuss three areas about the NCTTA:
1. First, how College Table Tennis sport clubs were created and how many member schools took part year after year.
2. Second, will be a description of the competition system for College Table Tennis created and promoted by NCTTA.
3. Third area will be NCTTA rules, regulations, organizational philosophy and how those policies ultimately shaped the success of the College Table Tennis landscape.
As was discussed the formation of recreation and sport from the beginning faced many challenges like Colonialism (survival), fervent religious dogmas or even short sighted College/University faculty. The need for play was something that students themselves created and governed themselves for themselves. Recreation later split off into athletics and into what is called Campus Recreation. Part of that campus recreation paradigm is club sports. It is here where College Table Tennis, with few exceptions, currently resides.
NCTTA sits at the helm of this process to help others navigate the sometimes choppy waters of the Campus Recreation/Sport Club culture in the US, Canada and Puerto Rico. NCTTA’s role is to assist those interested in creating and maintaining this club sport. From the NCTTA homepage in “about us”. (Leparulo, “About Us”)
NCTTA stands to meet the challenge of promoting one of the least developed collegiate sports by actively increasing its membership, competitive level of play, and professionalism. NCTTA works to promote both recreational and intercollegiate Table Tennis on college campuses. Our ultimate goal is to promote serious amateur sport competition among collegiate table tennis athletes and schools most specifically in the area of women’s table tennis where the NCAA has currently created an impetus for such a program.
NCTTA has an affiliation with over 200 schools and colleges in the United States, Canada and Puerto
Rico. Year after year schools pay a membership fee to be a part of NCTTA and be able to utilize its
services in providing the highest level of College Table Tennis tournament play. NCTTA sponsors a year
round (academic year) geographically divided league as well as regional and national tournaments in
which our member schools may participate.
Members of NCTTA are defined via 1.1 of the NCTTA Rules and Regulations document as: “Any college or university that has an active and school-affiliated table tennis club, student organization or varsity table tennis program.” (Leparulo, 2015)
Here lies the crux of the discussion, school-affiliated club or student organization. These are standards within the Campus Recreation and Sport club culture and every institution of higher learning gives the opportunity for students to create this organization. It seems we are repeating history with regard to sport club administration within College Table Tennis. Students managing, budgeting, scheduling and coordinating organizations and groups themselves for other students as they did at the turn of the
century before infrastructure was set in place. It is a nation-wide belief that Campus Recreation and Campus Life programming such as this gives way to the development of leadership, healthy lifestyles and overall highest level of integrity.
Any individual interested in playing College Table Tennis must first create a school affiliated club or student organization for which NCTTA staff is trained to assist. Students typically must adhere to general criteria decided on by each school. Typically one will have to do three to five of the following:
* Create a club constitution (set of rules)
* Have a minimum number of club members sign a statement of creation (generally five to eight students at the respective school)
* Name a faculty/staff advisor
* Demonstrate proficient club leadership (President, Secretary, Vice President, etc.)
* Be a member of a national, regional or state governing body
* Have officers or club leadership have the ability to attend school training
These criteria are just one example and are taken from the Florida State University Campus Recreation Sport club guidebook (“FSU Campus Recreation Sport Club Guidebook 2015-16”)
Each school certainly has the ability to make different demands of students wanting to create a sport club. NCTTA serves as a consultant in the process helping students to wade through the sometimes confusing university administration red tape. NCTTA member schools have the ability to field different teams as a part of their membership to
the organization. A Varsity team or “A team” as it is called conversationally is considered the highest level team and its results will appear in Division, Regional and National standings. This Varsity team is coed in nature but typically has been all male. In recent years however, women have infiltrated to create a very different makeup with men and women playing in high level competition against one another.
As an aside, it should be noted that NCTTA allowed faculty/staff to participate as a part of the school team. The thought process in the early 2000’s was to provide College Table Tennis clubs with more numbers and membership. As the popularity grew faculty/staff were no longer needed. Eligibility standards were created and increased in recent years. Undergraduate and Graduate students were held to different standards of GPA and credit hour accumulation. NCTTA put together an eligibility duration as well to cover the number of years a student could represent his/her school in intercollegiate table tennis.
NCTTA has also always allowed for Junior Varsity teams, called “B teams,” to compete. These teams are typically composed of club members (students, faculty or staff) that as a team will not count for standings. Lastly, in the 2004-2005 season, NCTTA was responsible for the birth of the women’s college table tennis movement by introducing women only college table tennis teams. Virginia Tech won the inaugural title in 2005. Women’s teams are also part of an NCTTA member school’s team membership.
Women’s College Table Tennis appeared in the 2004-05 league season and became a staple in the College Table Tennis arena. One of NCTTA’s goals has always been to promote serious amateur sport competition among colleges, but more specifically with women where the NCAA has created an impetus for such growth. NCAA is the National Collegiate Athletic Association and governs the highest level of college amateur sport competition. Recently this organization has given Table Tennis and other sports recognition at the highest level specifically for promoting women’s athletics.
NCTTA over the years has met with USA Table Tennis and other groups closely involved with the NCAA program in the hopes of garnering enough information to create a permanent foothold for women’s table tennis. It is a multi-step process to be recognized and affirmed by the NCAA as an official collegiate sport and it takes considerable effort. NCAA created an emerging sports program for the express purpose of adding more women’s college sports.
According to a report from September 2014 submitted by NCTTA Vice President External, Kagin Lee, there are three major steps required for inclusion within the NCAA Emerging sports list and NCTTA is contributing a significant portion of its resources to complete this.
Step 1: Ten formal letters of commitment must be received from athletic directors intending to sponsor women’s college table tennis.
Step 2: A sport is given ten years to develop forty commitments for Women’s College Table Tennis. Forty colleges must have varsity women’s table tennis programs.
Step 3: Table Tennis must maintain the level that it has reached or risk being removed.
There are additional requirements needed for the sport to be considered and they include: league expansion, club development and high school table tennis. Currently there are many challenges that prohibit NCTTA from carrying out this task including the fact that there is no regulated high school table tennis association or league and the fact that there are only two scholarship schools in the United States.
This next area will cover NCTTA competition rules, team regulations, schedules, competition format and College Table Tennis Redevelopment that included the introduction to singles play and the professionalizing of our tournaments. NCTTA attempts to meet the demand of the membership and continues to provide well run tournaments with just a volunteer core leading the organization.
NCTTA’s competition rules will follow ITTF rules with certain exceptions and a few will be highlighted to show NCTTA’s emphasis. The organization believes first and foremost in the team sport concept. College Table Tennis was organized in NCTTA as a team sport which makes uniforms mandatory in all levels of competition (singles, teams). Taken from the NCTTA Rules and Regulations: Uniforms are required to be worn at all NCTTA competitions (singles and team) and must, at minimum, consist of matching shirts of the same design and color, and must include the school or club name or logo. In addition, we do a video broadcast of our National Championships and are
making strides to get all schools color coded for that tournament.
Team Regulations were previously discussed in terms of what kinds of teams are permitted: (Varsity, Junior Varsity, Women). For a school to field any such team they must fulfill all membership criteria which includes a payment and a verified eligibility form. Once this is completed said school may continue forward to play in league matches.
Team contests consist of 4 singles and 1 doubles match in a best three out of five games to eleven points. In League tournaments, all singles matches are played out and doubles are only played if the singles are tied 2-2. League play is generally conducted with a round robin format within divisions.
Divisions are aligned geographically with anywhere from three to six schools. Each division is led by an NCTTA certified “division director” that manages the schools and a budget allocated by the NCTTA Board of Directors. Team contests playing order gives NCTTA play a strange twist in that every school must turn in a four to eight person roster and from that roster lineups are deduced in numerical playing order so that whoever plays at number one singles is forced to play in the doubles. This competition format is like no other in the Table Tennis world.
NCTTA coordinates a league with the following schedule at thought:
Division Competition => Regional Competition => National Competition
Division play in Fall & Spring semesters (split up in geographical divisions of three to six schools)–>
Regional play in only Spring semester (split up again geographically, top schools qualify from division play)–>
Championship tournament in March or April of that academic year (Top schools from Regional play qualify for the final tournament through placement or wildcard via ratings) Prior to 2011, NCTTA just had a Division to Championship type of format where winners of divisions qualified directly to the Championships, but with growth in numbers (see above table) NCTTA had no choice but to add another tier in competition. This would be called the “redevelopment” period.
College table tennis had been growing quite rapidly throughout the US and Canada, which meant more players, more member schools and more NCTTA divisions. While these are all good things, nonetheless the current rate of growth had also created some challenges within our league structure, in terms of keeping divisions to a manageable size and keeping travel distances reasonable for teams. In the fall of 2010, NCTTA formed a Redevelopment Task Force to devise some steps to accommodate this growth. Chris Wang and Francois Charvet (NCTTA Board members) and others worked tirelessly to design a new strategy for College Table Tennis.
This new system brought a new tier called Regional Championship tournaments featuring the best of the best in division play as well as expanding positions in division competition to teams that normally never had the opportunity to compete at the highest level. Regional tournaments were thought to be a mini national event. NCTTA’s goals since this time has been working to bring the Regional tournaments up to par with the National Championships. In 2015 it added Regional Championship websites:
West Regional: https://sites.google.com/a/nctta.org/2015west/
South Regional: https://sites.google.com/a/nctta.org/2015south/
Great Lakes Regional: https://sites.google.com/a/nctta.org/2015-nctta-great-lakes-regional-championship/
Northeast Regional: https://sites.google.com/a/nctta.org/2015ne/
NCTTA will be bringing on live streaming to these events in 2015-16 season.
In addition to a new tier of tournaments in 2011/12 came a new event for NCTTA. NCTTA had always been a team oriented organization only sponsoring team events, but the organization also added singles to its event choices. Traditionally singles in College Table Tennis had been conducted by the Association of College Union International (ACUI), but with other changes came this one as well, as NCTTA decided to take on College singles and doubles competition. NCTTA even added Paralympic singles!
The result was an unparalleled increase in players, schools and participation. The level of competition increased to new levels never seen in College Table Tennis and Table Tennis. Many were calling NCTTA College Table Tennis Championships, “the most competitive table tennis event in North America.” The accolades were also coming in from abroad as the number of international players in NCTTA has increased over the years with the admission of international students to American universities.
Once such player, Jose Barbosa (Brazilian International), who played in the US for both Lindenwood and Texas Wesleyan University (both Table Tennis scholarship schools) spoke highly about his experience within the American based collegiate organization of NCTTA through an article originally written in Brazil by Francisco Junior titled, gion”. In the English translation provided by Jorge Vanegas in Kagin’s blog.com in the Tuesday October 2013 edition. Barbosa stated about the NCTTA Championships, “You cannot compare Brazilian table tennis with American” further emphasizing the superiority of US Table Tennis at every level: its organization, structure, matches, and even tournament food. This disparity between the U.S. and Brazil is all the more noteworthy when one considers that in Brazil table tennis is considered a national sport with Brazil ranked in the Top 20 worldwide whereas the United States is considered a table tennis backwater. (Lee, 2013)
From Kagin Lee’s blog on College Table Tennis; the NCTTA Championships would provide the following: (Lee, 2013)
* Player/Volunteer meals and a dinner awards banquet
* Every match officiated by an umpire and a scorekeeper
* All 18 courts fully barriered with umpire desks, scoreboards and towel boxes
* A sectioned off area for dedicated practice tables
* Every player is a part of a team wearing a distinct uniform
* Matches are live streamed with commentary
* Press releases sent out prior, during and after the event
* A tournament program for all participants with photos of each participating school
The organization took note and increased its exposure and professionalism by providing yet another innovative way of reaching its membership, fans and sponsors: social media. NCTTA has never been shy about using innovation to manage the organization and to reach new levels. This was true as far back as 1999 when LNITT officers used the early internet to its fullest; so did this generation of College Table Tennis administrators continue to advance the positive momentum of its cause, still operating with a completely volunteer body of students, and working people with every day jobs. Continuing forward with innovation, in 2011, NCTTA brought forward the ability to live stream the championships to family members, friends and fans in the far reaches of the world. We also began to attend professional conferences to advertise and market our event to cities, travel bureaus and sport entities in an effort to improve support for when we travel to different locations for the Championship tournament.
NCTTA used facebook and twitter throughout the years, but more so after the redevelopment since 2012. Facebook was used for updates while twitter was used to utilize pictures and shorter catch phrases. Press releases were sent every couple of days during each tournament as well as weeks in advance and after as evidence on this webpage: http://www.nctta.org/press In present day, all press releases are found on a unique Championship page for each year: champs.nctta.org. NCTTA is now a part of a large and growing number of social media platforms that include: website blogging, facebook (group & page), Twitter, Google+, Ponguniverse and Instagram. This is an event no one wants to miss and everyone wants to take part in and whether they are on site at the tournament site or online we want them to feel a genuine part of the event. During our streaming it is not uncommon to have those not at the event interact with the organization via commentary, as well as with the volunteers, players etc. Recently the NCTTA has created contests for participation for its membership as well as its alumni and fans throughout the nation and world. NCTTA recognizes that once students graduate
they still want to be a part of College Table Tennis.
A list of College TT Championship winners from Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercollegiate_sports_team_champions#Table_Tennis
NCTTA’s goal to spread the importance of College Table Tennis to anyone and everyone was taking shape. What started as an organization with a seven member board of directors and a handful of tournament directors was developing into the very concept of what the pioneers had dreamed and envisioned: an organization dedicated to the promotion of the highest level of competition for university that supported and rewarded its members and supporters. NCTTA was growing its membership, but also its infrastructure and with that came the struggle of maintaining this growth at an internal organizational level based on unpaid volunteers. This next area will cover NCTTA’s organizational structure, its board of directors, regional and division directors, committees, championship volunteers and how they function to keep this organization afloat. The who of what NCTTA is could be perceived as more important than what the organization brings to its members, because without the “who” there may not be a “what”. In
addition, more of the media related success will be elaborated on with discussion of sponsorships and what the future could bring.
NCTTA at its core is a group of passionate volunteers who do work at the organization’s behest for the love of the sport. Most of the volunteers had played in College Table Tennis previously or are current participants in College Table Tennis either as a player or as a mentor or coach. NCTTA over the years has gone through a massive change in its volunteers, staff and division directors. LNITT which was the organization in the 1990’s had 5-6 people as officers. NCTTA just 5 years ago stood at this figure below.
Now in 2015, 25 years later NCTTA stands with a seven member board of directors, six regional directors, twenty nine division directors and another fifteen or so committee chairs and members all totaling well over fifty. Still none are paid for their work, but this may change; as NCTTA grows, the need for a paid staff person is constantly under discussion.
The NCTTA of today (2015) is a potpourri of individuals banding together to make a change that impacts thousands yearly and hopes to create opportunities for more. President of the Board of Directors is Willy Leparulo who works in educational administration; Vice President Joseph Wells works in retail with Under Armour; HR Director, Sam Huang, is an Engineer; Athlete Representative is Kevin Li, currently in Medical school; Treasurer,Randy Kendle, is currently an executive with Boeing; League Director,Chris Wang, is an engineer and Vice President External, Kagin Lee is in computer software.
This board and all other boards are and have been voted in by the membership in two year elections. Many on the board have been serving for multiple years and all have daily jobs and obligations. Nonetheless they consistently dedicate 15 to 20 hours a week to meet and converse as their LNITT forefathers did before them, to tackle the many issues of this organization, to work to improve it and most importantly to enhance the experience of those with whom it interacts. .
Some of the improvements that this Board has accomplished:
* Annual Reports
* Media outreach
The organization hopes to be able to outline the success of College Table Tennis to potential sponsors and member schools. NCTTA has partnered with Newgy Industries, one of NCTTA’s oldest partners and sponsors in promoting college table tennis, to develop the NCTTA National Scholarship program. Thanks to Newgy and one of NCTTA’s hard working volunteers, Michael McFarland, this idea has come to fruition. The scholarship program has changed several times over the years, but has awarded to numerous athletes in College Table Tennis, funding that has helped towards their educational expenses while representing their school in Table Tennis. From the National Scholarship website the program is:
NCTTA’s National Table Tennis Scholarship Program has been developed to give deserving table tennis athletes the opportunity for financial support while pursuing a college education. With the generous support from NEWGY Industries, NCTTA is able to award a limited number of scholarships to male and female students, based on the criteria described on this site. Recipients are expected to practice with and compete for their school’s table tennis team in NCTTA competition.
Recently the NCTTA Board of Directors has decided to make a push for the scholarship program to high school students coming to College Table Tennis to influence and motivate them to play. As an organization its leadership members are spread thin but they do what they can to help the pipeline for College Table Tennis and certainly this change will help to promote that.
Scholarships outside of the NCTTA National Table Tennis program are also available through schools in NCTTA. NCTTA hopes to increase the number of schools offering scholarships to increase the population involved in College Table Tennis. Currently there are only two scholarship table tennis schools, Texas Wesleyan University and Lindenwood University. Texas Wesleyan University offers partial scholarships for its players and Lindenwood University offers grants. The difficulty is in getting schools and athletic officials to buy into the concept of Table Tennis as a sport worth investing in. NCTTA continues to move to find ways to get this accomplished.
Sponsorship is how the NCTTA has survived from its beginnings in 1992 until present day. LNITT, as small as it was, had its share of sponsors from former players to current Table Tennis enthusiasts. One of the first sponsors was Outblaze which came from a former LNITT player. Most of the other sponsorships came through table tennis itself as NCTTA governed a very popular cross country and cross continent league which was deemed more marketable for a long time versus the National Championships.
Sponsors from Stiga (Table Tennis Pioneers), Killerspin, Butterfly and now Joola have been sponsors of LNITT/NCTTA providing balls, barriers, player discounts on equipment and cash donations for the organization. There were other non-Table Tennis sponsors like PepPod (a sport drink company) and Rockstar games (promoting its new table tennis video game) but those were few and far between. NCTTA hopes to build on the variety of sponsors enjoyed thus far, and believes that this type of diversity is key to sustaining a strong and viable future. One such sponsor that developed a special relationship with College Table Tennis through LNITT, NCTTA and even ACUI was Newgy Industries. Newgy is generally known as the creator of Table Tennis Robots and Newgy always was very supportive of grassroots movements and especially within College Table Tennis. Their support to ACUI, LNITT and NCTTA ultimately was what allowed for many of these events to take place. Newgy would come with their purple barriers and Table Tennis Robots to many College Table Tennis Championships. They were a strategic part of the College Table Tennis goal of growth. Newgy continues to be
connected today with NCTTA as the principal donor of the NCTTA Scholarship program. NCTTA has strived to enter the eyes and ears of anyone and everyone they can reach through every available medium. Press releases before, during and after the event was the status quo, but lately with the advent of social media the press releases have become much more popularized. First, for example, board member Kagin Lee created his own blog where others could retweet, facebook and spread around and talk about. His blogs were popular areas to copy and paste to:
“Making of College Table Tennis” http://blog.kaginism.com/2013/05/the-making-of-college-table-tennis.html
“Impact of College Table Tennis” http://blog.kaginism.com/2014_03_01_archive.html In 2014, education beat writer for the Wall Street Journal, Douglas Belkin, contacted the organization to get a story about Texas Wesleyan’s ten in a row winning streak but ended up writing a beautiful piece about College Table Tennis and its growth. This article was picked up by many sources and re-used in social media: http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303887804579501391762367308
China Daily USA then did its own story in relation to that just because of the Wall Street Journal piece: http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/2014-04/22/content_17455560.htm
USA Table Tennis and other national table tennis sources would write about NCTTA and College Table Tennis success and even when one would expect nothing more, there was. NCTTA in late 2014 would receive the honor of being chosen Sport Organization Event planner of the year from Connect Sports. The coveted award was accepted by NCTTA President Willy Leparulo in the annual conference. Also, towards the start of 2015, Sports planning guide asked for an interview with the President of NCTTA to promote what College Table Tennis is doing and how to take part: http://sportsplanningguide.com/willy-leparulo-president-of-nctta-table-tennis/
College Table Tennis, which essentially started as a small drop in the proverbial water bucket, is building steam and hopefully coming to a city near you. Here you can see a
current participation map of USA and Canada. There are talks of spreading into Puerto Rico with its own division and Mexico and Jamaica too.
NCTTA has fantastic and passionate volunteers that are the backbone of the organization and provide the man power so that each year is just as cohesive, productive and, of course, fun as it was the year before. The organization is currently getting ready for the 2015-2016 League Season with the Championships tournament sponsored by TMS International (ITTF Marketing group), Joola and Doublefish to be held in Round Rock (Austin) Texas.
FSU Campus Recreation Sport Club Guidebook 2015-16. (n.d.). Retrieved August 27, 2015, from http://campusrec.fsu.edu/sites/default/files/docs/sports/sc15guidebook.pdf
Intercollegiate Sports Team Champions. (n.d.). Retrieved August 27, 2015, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intercollegiate_sports_team_champions#Table_TennisLee, K. (n.d.). Kagin’s Table Tennis Blog. Retrieved August 27, 2015, from http://blog.kaginism.com/2013/10/2013-2014-nctta-league.html
Lee, K. (n.d.). Kagin’s Table Tennis Blog. Retrieved August 27, 2015, from http://blog.kaginism.com/2013/10/2013-2014-nctta-league.html
Lee, K. (n.d.). Kagin’s Table Tennis Blog. Retrieved August 27, 2015, from http://blog.kaginism.com/2014/03/the-impact-of-college-table-tennis.html
Lee, V. (2000, March 1). NCTTA. Retrieved August 27, 2015, from http://www.usatt.net/magazine/00march-april/NCTTA.html
Leparulo, W. (n.d.). National Table Tennis Scholarship Program. Retrieved August 15, 2015, from http://nctta.org/scholarship/
Leparulo, W. (n.d.). About Us. Retrieved August 27, 2015, from http://www.nctta.org/about
Leparulo, W. (2015). Bylaws for National Collegiate Table Tennis Association. Retrieved August 27, 2015, from http://www.nctta.org/doc/NCTTA_Bylaws.pdf
Leparulo, W., Wang, C., Lee, K., Kendle, R., Li, K., Wells, J., & Huang, S. (2015, August 18). Rules and Regulations NCTTA 2015-16. Retrieved August 27, 2015, from
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